GOA: Jinqiao Wanchuang Center is located in Shanghai National Economic and Technological Development Zone – the expansion area of Shanghai Free Trade Zone, where many multinational companies gather and the regional industry is developed maturely. The park has a full life-cycle industrial chain with Huawei, Corning, Avient Corporation, and Shanghai Industrial Technology Research Institute as the source of power, with upstream and downstream enterprises aggregating and developing. The industrial park originally built in the traditional industrial park mode has gradually failed to meet the functional needs of emerging science and innovation enterprises for office environment.
1.项目背景 Project Background
There are 10 buildings in Jinqiao Wanchuang Center, with a total construction area of 110,000 square meters. The AB building spans the park, and the remaining buildings are divided into groups of three in a central and symmetrical manner. The center of the group is a two-story underground garage, which is about 1.5 meters higher than the ground, and a central plaza above them.
▼改造前VS改造后总平面图 General floor plan before renovation VS after renovation
The original design, due to structural and technical reasons, the green roof can only be arranged in the form of potted greenery along the way, failing to form a systematic, multi-level, richly planned and reasonable greenery landscape system with few people. Meanwhile the vertical traffic system leading to the basement under the original square was not closely integrated with the first floor entrance of the office building in the park, and the traffic flow was too complicated, which greatly reduced the utilization rate of the basement. After Vanke Group obtained the lease of the industrial park, they proposed a design commission for the renewal of Jinchuang Center.
Along with the development of the city, the renewal of the park is not only a historical continuation, ecological sustainability and iconic renewal of the times, but also a creation of future humanistic life. The transformation of the original industrialized park into an office park with more humanistic landscape connotation is also an important principle of this design.
▼基地改造前 Before base transformation
2.产业园区的改造理念和策略的发展 The development of renovation concepts and strategies for industrial parks
回顾一下历史上产业园区的改造理念和策略的发展，欧美各国在上世纪六十年代对工业历史建筑进行了大规模的拆除，其后各界意识到对旧街区的小范围改造更符合社会经济和审美革新的述求， 1979年巴拉宪章提出 “改造性再利用”甚至之后英国提出“创意产业”的概念，将产业园区的改造理念和策略推上了新的高度。
Looking back at the development of the renovation concept and strategy of industrial parks in history, European and American countries carried out large-scale demolition of industrial historical buildings in the 1960s, after which all industries realized that the small-scale renovation of old neighborhoods was more suitable for socio-economic and aesthetic innovation.In 1979, the The Burra Charter put forward the concept of “adaptive reuse” and even “creative industries”. After that, the concept of “creative industries” was proposed in Britain, which pushed the concept and strategy of industrial park transformation to a new level.
The transformation of domestic industrial parks has emerged since the 1980s, especially in first-tier cities such as Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen. However, domestic industrial parks are usually leased out by the government to different owners, and are thus influenced by the needs of owners at different phases, thus tending to be more commercialized overall.
From the design vocabulary and context of transformation, there is a huge difference between Eastern and Western cultures. Most of the industrial parks in the West are transformed from the ideal of urban architecture, such as the Novartis Industrial Park in Basel, Switzerland, which is planned and designed based on the principle of urban ideal of street square, the Vida Office Park, which is based on the principle of “architectural art and design collection”.The High Tech Campus Eindhoven in the Netherlands is based on the principle of ecology and environmental protection,the environment has a “wild feeling”.
For example, Shanghai’s Hongkou soho, designed by Kengo Kuma, reflects the aesthetic interest of Eastern culture, and the façade of the building resembles origami art, reflecting a kind of flowing mood.
Back to this case, at the beginning of the project, according to the overall project strategy and demand, the project schedule and budget, we proposed design strategies such as sorting out the traffic flow, setting up a central green slope and increasing the support facilities, etc. In terms of design vocabulary and context, it was inspired by the philosophy of landscape in Song painting to create a modern landscape pattern with an oriental mood. The green slope undulates like a mountain, the steps and stone chairs resemble rocks, and the walkway meanders like a stream, all of which converge in the “mudflat stacked water” – the Grand Staircase. Visitors feel like they are in a modern and attractive landscape, providing a natural space for high-tech talents in the park to rest and relax and “look up to the stars”.
▼项目鸟瞰 Before base transformation
3.宋画山水哲学启发下的现代景观格局 Modern landscape pattern inspired by the philosophy of landscape in Song painting
The Song paintings, in the historical scroll of Chinese art history, represent the supreme aesthetic pursuit of the Song people who worshiped nature – the beauty of nature. In the article “Analysis of the Relationship between Man and Nature in Song Dynasty Landscape Painting”, it is mentioned that Song painting advocates the harmony and unity of man and nature, and the transformation of man into nature. The interplay of emotion and scenery is the highest realm pursued by Song painters. In Song painting, the aspires to the unity of the object and the ego, where man finds his position in nature and nature takes on a life force.”
The design hopes that through the landscape philosophy and layout of Song painting, it will enable the renovated park to inherit this landscape natural mood and emotion, and can provide a place where these high-tech talents can set themselves free. In the original site design, the underground garage was 1.5m higher than the surrounding area, which made the height difference between the first floor of the office building and the garage too clear, and also lacked light and landscape function, which was too depressing. Therefore, at the beginning of the design, we considered reducing the height difference between the two through the setting of green slopes with different slopes, so that the ground and roof space can be integrated, weakening the height difference and introducing the landscape into the office building.
▼整体鸟瞰 Overall bird’s eye view
At the same time, a stepped walkway is added on each of the east and west sides, leading directly to the roof garden, enhancing the connection between the ground and the roof garden and allowing walkers to easily shuttle between the ground and the roof garden. In addition, two winding paths are designed between the green slopes on the ground to increase the fun of the whole landscape. It makes the ground and roof gardens attractive to each other. The original central symmetrical pattern and axis are broken, making the overall outline relatively irregular and adopting the natural trend.
The design is inspired by the paths in the Song paintings, most of which are winding and flowing, starting from nowhere and going nowhere, fascinating and symbiotic with nature. For example, in Ju Ran’s “Layered of Rocks and Trees”, which depicts a mountain forest after a heavy rain, several winding paths pass through the woods, as if the viewer could follow the paths and wander into the world of the painting. It makes the pedestrians walking through this area integrate with the landscape. Through this design, we hope to create a richer spatial level in the rooftop garden, so that the office workers in the park can wander through it and get a abundant feeling.
Song painting is good at expressing the relationship between mountain as real and water as imaginary, and water is mostly painted with white space, or a boat and a stone, in order to be still. Therefore, the roof garden is designed with 8 irregular flower beds in the form of topology above the original structural pillars, which are like strange stones in the water, cutting out different “currents” from the original square roof garden, increasing the dynamic sense of space, forming different winding roads, and changing the original excessively straightforward pattern.
In the original flow design, to reach the underground garage, you need to go to the roof plaza first, and then go down the stairs on both sides of the plaza. The overly complicated flow line directly increases the inconvenience of users. In this renovation design, both entrances were reorganized, and the stairwell on the southwest side was changed to one that can be accessed directly from the ground level. The other stairwell, on the other hand, retains the way of going down from the roof. Such two different traffic flow lines are very effective in addressing the needs of different people.
At the same time, the stairwell on both sides is created as a “hut” concept, which is a place for people to live, adding a humanistic atmosphere in the middle of a landscape. The Song painting from Li Cheng “Qing Luan Xiao Temple” and Fan Kuan “”Journey to the Stream and Mountain”” both represent houses or temples. In the midst of the majestic world, only this small building carries the emotion of people in nature and increases the sense of belonging in the scenery – existing in the scenery and receiving the scenery into the eyes. The staircase rooms set on both sides of the site are also set apart from their function and have a unique feeling of “hutting in the people’ realm”.
One of the ingenious features of the Song painting “”Journey to the Stream and Mountain”” is that the author intentionally placed the walker on the rightmost side of the scroll, but placed the long road across the front, through the technique of “taking the situation from afar and the quality from nearby”, the walker in the painting leads the viewer’s thoughts to the outside of the scroll, which is the end of the scroll but infinite in its meaning. Therefore, this design sets steps at the north and south of the rooftop garden, with the north side as a winding entrance, which is the entry. The south side is designed as a large staircase like a mudflat, slowly spreading downward and leading the whole design to the far side, forming the trend of the whole landscape from south to north. Walking in this area will not be limited to this place, we will also have a taste of where the design has not reached.
▼大阶梯结合休闲坐凳树池 Large ladder combined with leisure sitting stool tree pool
▼阶梯花池细节处理 Step flower pond detail processing
4.整体格局下对绿植的应用 Application of green plants in the overall pattern
In the original design, the load of the roof was not considered, resulting in the original plaza can only scattered piles of a small number of potted plants, which is not beautiful and has no design. Therefore, one of the difficulties of this renovation is to increase the green plants to the maximum extent and restore the nature in the limited conditions.
Firstly, the new slope in this design and the roof added flower bed and other feasible space, we chosed to plant grass slope, and spread out a large area to form a green space, which improved the landscape space without any greening originally. Secondly, reinforcement was made to the roof of the second floor underground garage and the roof load was upgraded. In terms of plant selection, cherry blossoms belong to the tree family and can be planted as high as 4-16 meters, with 0.8 meters wide and 0.6 meters deep soil.
▼局部鸟瞰 Partial bird’s eye view
Back to the history, cherry blossoms have been planted in the palace since the Qin and Han dynasties, and in the Southern Song Dynasty, the poet Wang Sinda had a poem saying: “The first cherry blossoms are beautiful when they move, and the algae are scorching and fragrant, the red flowers are already glowing before the yellow leaves open buds.” From this, we know that cherry as a deciduous tree, its four seasons of the scene is different, first flowers after the leaves, in winter, the root and branch is distinct, between the dead and dry, more in the Song painting, long and far-reaching mood. Therefore, we finally add eight cherry trees on the roof center’s column position, firstly, to change the situation that the original center square completely lacks shade and unable to stay. Secondly, the beauty of the four seasons of the cherry also greatly increases the variability of the landscape, bringing the gift of nature to the walker.
The two sides of the entrance of the “hut” realm, is the highlight of the design, but also a symbol of humanistic sentiment, the choice of the most admired literati “bamboo forest” surround, more prominent entrance of the winding path, through which, the poetic sense comes from. The small bamboo forest brings outstanding effect,at the same time, the planting cost is also very low, 30 bamboo plants can be planted per square meter, but the price is only a few hundred. The whole design, through the introduction of greenery such as bamboo forest, cherry blossom and grass slope, makes the original monotonous landscape space become rich and closer to nature.
▼中轴鸟瞰 Aerial view of the central axis
5.整体格局下细节的设计 The details of the overall design structure
From the aspect of lighting, considering that the original basement is basically empty, this design introduces a gymnasium in the basement and sets skylights on the top and both sides of the center, which not only provides light for the fitness center, but also allows the flow of people around to observe the activities of the body-building center through the skylights. It forms a three-dimensional sight line communication.
▼剖面分析 Profile analysis
In the roof garden, the skylight with transparent shape is designed in the form of topology, and the flowing shape is like a slow-moving boat in the water, a boat to show for the water, and the flower bed of “strange stones”, adding the trend of “swimming” to the whole landscape, enriching the the spatial fluidity and imagination,the glass refraction, which also provides better light and flowing halo for the fitness center. In terms of material selection, by guiding the trend and direction of the pavement, it perfectly fits the overall layout of the whole landscape flowing to the distance.
▼中庭不规则玻璃天窗 Irregular glass skylights in the atrium
▼休闲座椅空间 Leisure seating space
The original staircase room, only with columns to support the glass roof, in the renovation of the aluminum grille as an element language, retaining the original feeling of a piece of glass, a few strokes, more in line with the cloud hut in the leisurely painting, aluminum grille vertical design language and the “hut realm” entrance of the bamboo forest, through the different abstract and figurative At the same time, the sunlight spills through the grille to the entrance, the effect of light and shadow of the bamboo forest complements each other.
▼改造后的楼梯间 Stairwell after renovation
▼格栅廊架休闲空间 Recreation space with grille gallery
In other aspects, the ground and roof gardens have added places for walkers to rest and chat after walking through the park, and in response to the lack of systematic signage and nighttime lighting, the signage system has been supplemented and the nighttime lighting in the central recreation area has been increased. Even at the early night, it is a different experience to walk here.
▼静谧的穿行、休憩、聊天空间 Quiet walking, resting, and chatting space
In the Song paintings, mountains and rivers are all the result of human emotions, such as the “Stream and Mountain” in “Journey to the Stream and Mountain”, which does not exist in reality, but through the artist’s conception, it can leap onto the paper, naturally transcending its original meaning and giving it more humanistic feelings. Therefore, in this design, the landscape pattern in Song painting is refined in the design, and contemporary forms and materials are used to ensure functionality while increasing the creation of mood in landscape design. It is the re-renewal of humanistic living emotions to the landscape, which is both a combination with traditional philosophy and a means of urban renewal that can give a new vitality to the original park.
Reference Article: “Analysis of the Relationship between Man and Nature in Song Dynasty Landscape Painting
▼主入口平面 Main entrance plane
▼主入口剖面1-1 Main entrance section 1-1
▼主入口剖面2-2 Main entrance section 2-2
▼次入口平面 Secondary entrance plane
▼次入口立面 Secondary entrance façade
摄影师: 侯博文 / GOA大象设计品牌部摄影师
Project Name: Shanghai Jinqiao Wanchuang Center Park Renovation
Completion Year: 2020
Project Area:Total site 31,952 sqm
Design Firm:GOA Da Xiang Architectural Design Co.
Architectural Designer: Wang Yan
Landscape Designer: Hou Dongwei
Architectural Design Team: Hao Ruimin, Xu Chenxin, Han Rongxiao, He Liang, Wang Wensheng, Zhou Weiming, He Qian
Landscape design team: Xue Tianwei, Yuan Meiyun, Wang Yu
Signage design unit: Tushi Design
Developer: Wanchuang Real Estate (Shanghai) Co.
Photographer: Hou Bowen / GOA Elephant Design Brand Department Photographer
审稿编辑 王琪 – Maggie