During the reconstruction and revial of the nine-year compulsory school in Shuanghe Town, we emphasize to minimize the impact of post disaster reconstruction on the original social history, life and production, environmental aesthetics and economic technology. Considering the concept of “natural construction”, we try to suture the trauma of the disaster from construction in nature, construction of nature and constructing naturally, and give it a new attitude of“ healing”.
“我对新校园的感受是好玩，开心，宽大” —— 二年级王语晨 “我最喜欢学校的文庙，在文庙可以念古诗，写毛笔字，感受古代人的生活” —— 六年级 胡奕坪 “最喜欢学校的新足球场，因为足球场特别的大，地面柔软舒适而且很平整，即使踢球的时候不小心摔了也不会很痛，我特别喜欢在上面踢足球”——初二 曾军至 “新校园给我一种豁然开朗的感觉，有我们长宁县竹海之都的特色。校园的每个角落都充满绿色。在疲惫的时候让人感觉心旷神怡”——初三 文富翔
“My feeling of the new campus is fun, happy and generous” — Wang Yuchen, second grade “I like the Confucian temple in my school best, where I can read ancient poems, write calligraphy and feel the life of ancient people” — Hu Yiping, sixth grade “I feel that the new campus is very beautiful, and I like the classroom best because I love learning” — Luo Haowen, first grade “I like the school’s new football field best, because the football field is very big, the ground is soft and comfortable, and it’s very smooth. Even if I accidentally fall off when playing football, it won’t hurt very much. I especially like playing football on it” – Zeng Junzhi, the second year of junior high school “The new campus gives me a sense of sudden brightness, with the characteristics of Changning bamboo city. Every corner of the campus is full of green. It makes people feel relaxed and happy when they are tired – Wen Fuxiang, the third year of junior high school.
The above comes from our return visit to the project. As a designer, it is very gratifying to see the vivid life and learning scenes with our own eyes and receive such feedback.
▼重建后的新校园，the new school campus after reconstruction © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
At 22:55 on June 17, 2019, a 6.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, with a focal depth of 16 km. Shuanghe Town, located in the epicenter of the earthquake, was devastated. The school buildings of the only nine-year compulsory school in the town were also severely damaged. 50% of the dangerous buildings rated as seriously damaged were demolished. Children need to rebuild and repair their learning homes, and Shuanghe town needs to be revived after the earthquake.
▼场地鸟瞰，site aerial view © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
In the face of disaster, the whole social profile is presented. At the same time, a large number of funds and technologies are introduced from the outside. In the face of this opportunity to speed up the modernization process, how to grasp this degree, not only to continue the memory of the original history and culture, but also to carefully renew the texture of the small town, and to solve the problems accumulated for a long time, so that the reconstruction can really play a role in the local area, is a very challenging thing.
▼场地环境，context © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
The base of the nine-year school is divided into East and west areas by the main road of the town. After the west campus is occupied by a 400 meter runway, there is little land left; The east campus is full of school buildings built in different years, primary and junior high schools crisscross, teaching area and living area are mixed. There are several old buildings in Shuanghe, including the ancient city wall, the Dacheng Hall of the Confucian temple and the Chongsheng temple, which have a history of several hundred years.
▼重建后的校园鸟瞰，new campus aerial view © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
On this side, the aftershocks continue, the ruins have not been cleared, the campus facilities are damaged, and the classrooms are seriously inadequate; On the other side, the children can’t wait to enter the reinforced temporary school building to study, waiting for a hundred wastes. How to stitch up the old and new campus in the shortest time, straighten out the space of the school temple, heal Shuanghe town after the earthquake, and feel a great responsibility.
▼区位示意，location map © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
▼长宁府城局部，摘自《长宁县志》，清嘉庆戊辰秋镌 慎思堂藏板 Changning Fucheng part. From the Changning County Chronicles”. The collection board of shensitang engraved on the fifth day of Jiaqing in Qing Dynasty
Confucian temples have a large scale in history, but most of them do not exist now. Only Dacheng hall and Chongsheng temple were left, and many of them were damaged after the earthquake. On the south side of the Confucian temple, there are two sections of the old city wall which have been intertwined with the tree roots for many years. The campus is located in the Guangxu period of the Qing Dynasty. There is “Shaowen academy”, which is separated from the Confucian Temple by a wall. It passes through the Shengyu gate on the east side of the Confucian temple and faces the Wenchang Palace on the mountain.
▼校园与文庙形成对话，the new campus dialogues with the Confucian temple © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
Historically, “Temple” and “learning” are the unity of traditional ritual system and learning function space. They are often viewed as a whole. After sorting out, we combine the modern school with the Dacheng Hall of Confucian temple in the original school site to interpret the ritual space of temple learning in a modern way.
The restoration of the Confucian temple includes the simplified Wanren palace wall, the platform base indicating the location of Lingxing gate, the single slope corridor, panchi and Zhuangyuan bridge. Through the design of these simple structures and environment, the space order of Shuanghe Confucian temple is reconstructed“ It is no longer just two isolated halls. Students can enter the Sinology classroom of the Confucian temple through the corridor from the campus. The temple learning can be shared, inheriting the past and opening up the present. The revival of Confucian temple also led to the revival of Shuanghe town.
▼项目在原校址上将现代学校与文庙大成殿相结合 © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男 The modern school has been combined with the Dacheng Hall of Confucian temple in the original school site
▼文庙的国学课堂，the Sinology classroom of the Confucian temple © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
After the earthquake, the campus was damaged to varying degrees, so the demolition, renovation and new construction were carried out simultaneously. For the design team, the biggest challenge is not to build some buildings for their use, but to solve the problems accumulated in the original campus for a long time through architectural means.
▼分析动图，concept GIF. © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
The primary school and junior high school of this school were built in different times, and they are not related to each other in administration. Due to their own venues are very cramped, so hard “together”. Although there are different entrances and exits, the entrance of middle school can only enter the teaching area through the shared basketball court. Primary school teachers and students dormitory in a building, under the building is the canteen, fireworks smell is very strong. Middle school teachers’ dormitories were randomly built next to the experimental building on the north side, mixed with students in class. As for the 400 meter track and football field, they can only be built on the open space in the west across the main road in the town. Every PE class has to organize students to cross the road, so the utilization rate is not very high.
▼设计示意，diagram © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
We need to set order for this patchwork Campus – first two axes. The first is to clear the damaged buildings after the earthquake from the Dacheng Hall of Wenmiao, and to establish a cultural and etiquette axis connected with the old street of Shuanghe river. The connection of this axis will integrate the temple into the eight scenic routes of Shuanghe ancient town, and improve the pattern of Shuanghe ancient town as a whole. The other axis is the one that was buried in the East and west direction: connecting Shaowen academy, shengyumen and wenchanggong. Now, it is further connected with the East-West campus of the campus until the remote mountain.
▼重建校园秩序，re-setting the order of the campus © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
On the axis, the space of “field” is determined. The “field” interface is regular and corresponding to the axis. The “field” along the north-south direction of the Confucian temple is the shape of the Confucian temple restored by modern methods. It uses the single slope Wai corridor, Wanren palace wall, panchi Zhuangyuan bridge and Dacheng hall to outline the three entrance space. Against the background of 100 year old trees, it emphasizes a strong sense of historical ritual. This kind of progressive space archetype, we are in the East-West “field” for archetypal re carving. The new teaching building, the house shaped Pavilion, the corridor and the Houde building are used to enclose the interface, and the original terrain height difference is used to outline the square ceremony space which is more suitable for modern campus.
▼校园轴线，the campus axis © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
At the western end of the axis, a wider sports field extends. We reduced the 400 meter sports ground damaged after the earthquake to 300 meters. This strategy makes room for students’ living area. The abundant basketball court, lawn football field and plastic track with grandstand enable energetic children to run happily in the distant mountains and sunset every day.
▼俯瞰轴线西端的运动场，view to the sports field at the western end of the axis © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼从运动场望向校园轴线，view to the campus axis from the sports field © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
Unlike the general school, there is an open display, which is surrounded by densely populated houses of different ages. These houses are mostly brick and wood structures and two-story buildings with sloping roofs, which are the “landscape” staggered around the school, and also bear the prototype of life. Compared with the facade, the courtyard in the Campus – under the boundary of high density, according to the distance requirements of primary and secondary school teaching buildings, according to sunshine specifications, fire requirements and other factors… One by one, the void which is calculated and carefully carved out becomes particularly important.
▼分析图，analysis © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
By using the “courtyard” formed by the interface between new and old buildings, the elements of the old base are retained one by one and accommodated in the new enclosed site. The old city wall in the southwest of the learning Park, the towering tree in the south of Qiuxin building, and the yellow glazed tile double eaves roof in the courtyard of Bozhi building make the children have an independent activity area happily on the one hand, and on the other hand, they can shuttle between new and old buildings to trace back to their original memory. The four courtyard with different styles are both new and natural.
▼院落空间，the courtyard spaces © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
Design and repair at the same time; While building, while using; Post earthquake construction is like sewing. New buildings are stitched into the old base, and the old buildings not only need to ensure the normal teaching of the campus, but also need to be woven into the new campus pattern and texture in an orderly way.
▼建筑立面，building facade © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼立面细节，detailed view © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
For the restoration of old buildings, we follow this logic: first, according to the positioning of each building in the planning, we decide its transformation strategy. Second, in terms of color and form, the exterior wall elements of brick red and dark gray are emphasized; Make full use of local materials, revitalize local development, maintain low operation and maintenance requirements; Third, the new and old buildings complement each other in function, which not only meets the needs of primary and secondary schools, but also does not over design. By making full use of the transformation of the old buildings, the campus culture gradually precipitates, and finally the old and new ancient buildings are stitched together.
▼新旧古建筑缝合共生，the old and new ancient buildings are stitched together © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
The new buildings are connected one by one with unit pitched roofs, which are geometric lines abstracted from the rolling mountains, and also come from the pitched roofs of traditional settlements in southern Sichuan. Combined with the standard unit layout of teaching function, the architectural form and structure are comprehensively considered at the beginning of design. Finally, the frame shear wall system is presented. The shear wall is poured with bamboo grain fair faced concrete made with local bamboo as template, and the whole presents a continuous small house with sloping roof, integrating into the style of Shuanghe town with small volume.
▼单元式的坡屋顶来自于川南传统聚落坡屋顶风貌，the unit pitched roofs are abstracted from the geometric lines of the surrounding rolling mountains © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼一个个连续的坡屋顶小房子，以小体量融入双河小镇风貌，a series of small houses with sloping roofs are integrated into the style of Shuanghe town with small volumes © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
We hope to give individuals more optional, free and interesting modern education space. The whole school organizes the old and new buildings and Confucian temple into a whole through multi-level courtyard. By setting up the storm corridor system, roof recreation platform, outdoor landscape stairs and overhead space on the ground floor in series with the whole school, each functional area can be separated from each other and permeated with each other, providing a place for learning and communication, sports and leisure, and daily communication, and creating a rich and changeable campus activity place.
▼户外活动空间，outdoor activity space © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼风雨廊道，corridor © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼多层次的平台，the multi-level terraces © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
Shuanghe abounds in Phyllostachys pubescens, which is straight, long and tough. In spite of this, there are few local projects with bamboo as the architectural feature. In order to give full play to the advantages of local materials under the limited budget conditions, we decided to use bamboo as the template material of concrete shear wall. It is hoped that bamboo grain fair faced concrete combined with shear wall can present the original strength of materials. But bamboo grain fair faced concrete is more difficult than smooth concrete. Bamboo will have an arc, and there will be a gap between the arcs. Large seam appears rough, small easy to demould incomplete. At the same time, because of the difference of the size of a bamboo, the selection and arrangement of bamboo also need to be considered in advance.
▼竹纹清水混凝土立面，the facade made of bamboo grain fair faced concrete © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
Because of the lack of experience and the pressure of construction period, the model wall experiment has been difficult to achieve the ideal effect, which made the local workers close to collapse. Fortunately, in the process of repeated experiments, the construction team gradually found the most suitable joint width, demoulding method and concrete proportion. We also adjusted our psychological expectations and worked with the workers to find out a suitable construction scheme.
▼竹纹清水混凝土立面施工，construction photos © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
It is also a rare experience for architects to deeply participate in the specific construction process, get together with the construction team, solve problems and challenge difficulties together. Finally, after the completion of the project, the construction team became a local expert on fair faced concrete and expanded its new business direction.
▼校园夜景，the campus by night © 章鱼见筑–刘俊男
▼总平面图，site plan © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
▼一层平面图，first floor plan © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
▼二层平面图，second floor plan © 同济大学建筑设计研究院
▼剖面和立面图，sections and elevation © 同济大学建筑设计研究院